2017: Writing the Script for an Unknown Future

Happy New Year!

After a momentous 2016 we are excited to announce we’ve been awarded seed funding from the TippingPoint & House Commission for a new project for the year ahead! We also welcome Lucy Coren as resident Dramaturg to the company after her brilliant work with us during the summer.

All future collaborations and events will soon be announced.


In 2016 we decided to take an unknown play from Denmark to the Edinburgh Fringe Festival. A play about climate change. Or – our inability to talk about climate change, know how to talk about it, fully believe in it, deal with our proven culpability, get over the feeling of powerlessness, and find a course of action all without feeling like a self-righteous egotistical hypocrite or having an existential panic attack along the way. (Wait – am I talking about the characters or the creative team?)

“Cosmic Fear or The Day Brad Pitt Got Paranoia”.

We have a huge team of creatives and producers to thank as well as our supporters who made this project possible. You know who you are. Thank You.

Moving forwards we’ve been reflecting on the year that’s gone and what it means for our engagement on a topic such as climate change. In our Cosmic Cafe with Dr Stuart Capstick we spoke of the idea of ‘riot theatre’ which had caught our imaginations at the time. We spoke of ‘waking up our audiences’. We’ve reflected since on whether hope for a better future is unthinkable without anger, without rage and urgency. If disruptions to normal narratives are needed what do they look like? What role do stories have in the ‘Post-Truth’ world we’re apparently now in? We made Cosmic Fear during the depressing confusion of Brexit, but before Trump smacked the world on the face. Is it time now, 7 months post-referendum and 14 days pre-inauguration to get angry, punk, and wised up to the structural powers that need targeting via our art and the actions of our daily lives, individually and collectively?
We feel more now than ever there is the need to talk with our audiences.

“Radical is not saying how terrible the world is but opening our minds to creating something else”
John Holloway, Rediscovering the Radical

The characters in Cosmic Fear were dreaming up a blockbuster in which global hero Brad Pitt would lead, and that could transform the consciousness of the entire world. Sadly for them and Brad, Leo got there first. Leonardo Dicaprio’s award-winning documentary Before The Flood, which premiered in October, wowed, baffled and perhaps guilt-tripped the mainstream by documenting the global climate disasters that are occurring right now. But there was one little documentary that slipped under the radar: Josh Fox’s How To Let Go of the World and Love All the Things Climate Change, released in January 2016 and which was screened at the Hive community. It has left a deep impression.

From a place of overwhelming despair, acknowledging the race against time for the human race to save civilisation as we know it, Fox begins a grieving process for a world that is heading towards an increase in global temperature beyond 1.5 degrees (yes – despite the Paris Agreements). He decides to let go of the regret of centuries of carbon emissions and puts his attention bravely to those things that climate change can’t destroy. This moment of surrender, this private revolution, brings him face to face with global examples of courage, creativity, music, culture, dance, resilience, innovation, joy, laughter, song, ownership, responsibility, community, love, care, and generosity in the face of some of the climate disasters that are already here devastating parts of the world. His is a fight to bring to light those human principles valued around the world and that need to be harnessed during the challenges we will inevitably face. And he uses his despair as a rock to anchor him as he keeps moving forwards.

Josh Fox, How To Let Go Of The World…

Theatre’s lasting power, for us at Empty Deck, is that it remains an ephemeral inclusive space, a place for community building. Inclusive is important. For so many reasons it is time to think deeply about how we engage with and talk to people that think differently to ourselves and with whom we think there’s little to agree on. I think what makes climate change so potentially polemic is that it is a truth that cannot be denied but that challenges people in so many different and often discreet ways. That doesn’t mean we should shirk from talking about it. It is the largest story of collective survival I think the human race has ever seen.

“The role of the scientist and that of the artist is to make the invisible visible”
Lucy Wood, of Cape Farewell

We take this notion forward into 2017 as we work on our next commission. Working with partners in my hometown of Bedford we will be holding conversations with a diverse range of people on the street to explore how we can foster positive dialogue and create both disruptive and constructive art in response to this increasing social dilemma. Art that can appeal to people’s sense of social responsibility and make direct political demands.

“Meeting the 2°C target will require an unprecedented level of disruptive change. This won’t be achieved unless we embark upon a process of meaningful public dialogue to work out our collective response.”
Dr Stuart Capstick

Happy New Year to all. The hard work has only just begun…

Click on our little picture to sum up some of the “climate milestones” of 2016…

Kay Michael and This Week London Interview: Cosmic Fear

Kay Michael of Empty Deck: Cosmic Fear Or The Day Brad Pitt Got Paranoia
By Caro Moses | Published on Thursday 8 September 2016

The topic of climate change is a pretty thorny one, and it’s a problem that we seem – as a global community – reluctant to face. Which is why my ears pricked up when I heard, up at the Edinburgh Fringe in August, about a play glorying in the rather eccentric name of ‘Cosmic Fear Or The Day Brad Pitt Got Paranoia’, which deals unflinchingly with this very issue.

Our reviewer loved the show, and the conversation it provokes us an important one, so when I heard Empty Deck would be bringing it to the New Diorama, I thought it might be a good idea to talk to someone from the creative team behind it. I spoke to director Kay Michael.

CM: Tell us about the show – what happens in it? What’s the story?
KM: It’s about three flatmates struggling to talk about or know what to do in the face of climate change. At a complete loss, they decide that the only way to galvanise global consciousness is to make a blockbuster movie starring Brad Pitt that can compel the world into action. Their struggles along the way highlight our own contradictory relationship to such an existential and complex dilemma.

CM: And, er, what exactly does Brad Pitt have to do with it…?
KM: Well, he’s their Man of Action, their hero. He’s not dissimilar in their minds to someone like Leonardo DiCaprio; the celebrity Everyman that can speak to the world.

CM: What made the company want to stage this particular play?
KM: It’s fun, and challenging, and unusual. It’s a text that can be staged in so many ways, so we were able to create our own performance structure for it. That in itself has been a creative challenge that we wanted to take on.

More importantly perhaps is the fact that it’s a play trying to talk about something that many simply aren’t talking about, or don’t know how to talk about. It’s almost like we’ve reached a comfortable stalemate since the climate change conference in Paris in December 2015, and for the ordinary person this topic is not so much of a concern; it’s even become boring and tired. Yet, it’s arguably the most important issue of our time. We need to face up to it, more than we currently are.

CM: How did you come across the piece? Can you tell us a bit about the playwright?
KM: I was given the play to read by a literary agency here in London (IPR) who look after a plethora of wonderful international playwrights, many of whose work is yet to be produced on the British stage.

The playwright of ‘Cosmic Fear’, Christian Lollike, is an award-winning Danish writer, and he is known as one of the most progressive playwrights and artists in Denmark. His artistic drive comes from wanting to understand events, social trends and changes in politics and society.

He’s also the Artistic Director of SORT/HVID, a theatre in Copenhagen who claim to “move beyond borders and what you already know”. They “challenge your opinions and feelings, and take you places where uncertainty is the reference point”. We love that.

CM: Do you think it’s a show that could make a difference to the way people think about climate change? Does it have that kind of an agenda?
KM: Its only agenda is to get people thinking and talking about the subject, perhaps in a more active way than they might have done before. The trouble with climate change – and this is what the play explores – is that the only ‘enemy’ or ‘villain’ in this cultural story is ourselves. We are responsible for the increasing carbon emissions that are wreaking unknowable damage to the planet.

What that necessarily demands is behaviour change on an unprecedented scale. But that requires giving things up, and – as climate scientist Chris Rapley has spoken of in our conversation with him – it requires fundamental re-structuring of how the world is powered, financed and run. The task is mammoth, and we’re running out of time.

An audience member described her experience of the play as being like waking up after your morning alarm has gone off, running late for the rest of the day, with the alarm still going off all around you! It’s an urgent topic. There’s so much more we need to do: personally and politically. But we can’t force people to change their behaviour in the face of global warming. All we can hope for is that our audiences are left reflecting on themselves and their own action or inaction. The rest is up to them.

CM: The play had a run in Edinburgh this summer – how did that go? Had you taken a show to the Fringe before?
KM: We’re still reflecting on it, but it was a success in the sense that it enabled us to gauge audience responses to a play like this, talking about a topic like this. Audience numbers were good, and people came away from the play having gone through quite an impactful experience. It was the first time Empty Deck have been at the Fringe, though several of the company members have performed there before, myself included!

CM: Can you tell us a bit about Empty Deck – who is behind it, and what inspired you to set up your own company?
KM: Empty Deck was formed, about two years ago, by me and my two colleagues, movement director Sara Green and designer Denisa Dumtrescu. The three of us worked together on a Norwegian play by Arne Lyre that was selected for the Incoming Festival in 2015 and nominated for a Peter Brook Award and we have continued to work together since.

What’s special about our collaboration is that we all have a background in devising, so our approach to text and staging is incredibly collaborative and explorative, and that’s what keeps us going. We’re proudly international in our scope, with Denisa being from Romania, and our dramaturge, Lucy Coren, who we recently welcomed to the team, being from Canada. Cross-cultural collaboration is at the heart of what we do, with our first few projects inviting European playwrights to work with us in staging their plays in the UK for the first time.

CM: What aims do you have as a company? Where do you see yourself going in the future?
KM: Well, so far we have worked with writers from Norway and Denmark, and our aim is to continue working with a playwright from a different country each year, staging their UK premiere that can then go on tour. We’d love to take the work we do on those plays back to their country of origin, as that’s the interest for us: to explore the cultural differences and meeting points. We wish to develop a larger audience for international, and specifically European, theatre in the UK. As a company we also want to continue to develop our artistic practice, that takes inspiration from the international artists with whom we work.

CM: There’s only one chance to see ‘Cosmic Fear or The Day Brad Pitt Got Paranoia’ performed at the New Diorama this week – do you think there might be more opportunities in the future? Do you have any touring plans?
KM: Oh, you never can tell. But yes, we have plans, and are in the middle of various conversations with future partners.

CM: What other projects do you have coming up?
KM: Some research and development on various new ideas are brimming away… Watch this space.

This interview was commissioned by This Week London.

Post ‘2071’: Where are we now?

Chris Rapley in conversation with Kay Michael

Two years after Duncan Macmillan and Katie Mitchell staged 2071 at the Royal Court, Kay Michael, the 2071 assistant director and director of Empty Deck’s Cosmic Fear or The Day Brad Pitt Got Paranoia, caught up with the climate scientist behind the stage play, who co-wrote and performed it at the Royal Court, the Deutsches Schauspielhaus in Hamburg, and the Beaux-Arts theatre in Brussels, Professor Chris Rapley…

(Extract 1:)

KAY: A lot has happened in the past 2 years since 2071: COP21 and now Brexit. Where do you see us now in regards to our global and national response to climate change?

CHRIS: 195 nations signing anything is an extraordinary feat. And the COP21 climate agreement was a diplomatic triumph. Mixing with 40,000 people in Paris, all of whom were completely committed to making the world a better place and took it so seriously was a very uplifting experience. But the planet is indifferent to a piece of a paper, so now we have to deliver, and will they honestly deliver? The answer to that is still unfolding…. Brexit looked at first like it was a triumphant win for the sort of people in the UK who want to revoke the climate change act. In fact, given commitments by Greg Clark, the new Minister in charge, there is hope that the UK’s policies might become more ‘joined up’ and effective. More generally, around the world, what we fear is that politicians will delay or renege on their COP21 promises. Even if they deliver their national pledges in full, it will still only reduce what would have been a 4-5C warming by the end of this century – which would have been absolutely unimaginable – to around 2.7C. We need a huge scaling up and acceleration of action right now.

KAY: So is meeting the 2C guardrail impossible then?

CHRIS: 1.5C I think is impossible. We’re going to live it fairly soon. 2C might still just be achievable. So I think it’s a pity that post-COP21 the climate science community agreed to a request from the politicians to invest substantial effort looking into the difference between a 1.5C and 2C world. They’d be much better employed looking at the other end – at what a 6-8C world would look like, because that we really don’t know, and it’s still a possibility. In the UK the Met Office and others are looking at these high-end outcomes; it will be fascinating to see what they come up with.

The temperature numbers seem so small, but when you’re talking about global averages 5C was the difference between the last ice age and where we are now. The last time the world was 2-3C warmer than today there were hippopotami in the Thames, there was no ice at the North Pole. We’ve built our entire civilization based on the climate system we’ve inherited, not the one we are provoking. So its not useful saying we could just convert London into a city like Singapore to cope. It would cost; we’d need to rebuild pretty much all major infrastructure for example.

I think we’re likely to be heading well over 2C I’m afraid, sadly, and I don’t know what the world will be like. The direct impacts will be bad enough, but it’s the indirect impacts that will be the insidious part and we’ve already seen it with the Syrian refugees, 1.5 million of them being displaced due to drought between 2007 and 2010. So, climate change hits you directly, but it’s also a threat multiplier. You take the world, which is already a turbulent place, and it adds further really significant stresses.

KAY: Just hearing you now Chris, it fills me with dread. I understand your choices behind a neutral delivery for 2071, but what you’re saying now really captures the urgency of the matter…

CHRIS: Well we really should have got into dealing with all this 20 years ago, even 30 years ago. The world has moved much faster than we expected.

KAY: So we’re just not moving quickly enough to deal with the problem?

(Extract 2:)

CHRIS: Well oddly enough, the way institutions move formally, in their normal mode is very slow, and they’re not matched to what we need to do. The strange thing that we’ve seen with Brexit is that the political world can invert itself in 24 hrs. So, under the right circumstances, unfortunately dangerously unstable circumstances, but nevertheless under the right circumstances, extraordinary things can happen. People can just rise up.

KAY: Do you think it will take a large-scale event to trigger that kind of action?

CHRIS: Well we’ve talked a lot about this in the past. Jim lovelock once said to me ‘half a million dead – that would wake everybody up’

KAY: But there are natural disasters occurring all the time…

CHRIS: Well, half a billion could cause society to disintegrate, but half a million captures people’s attention. He wasn’t advocating, he was simply bemoaning the fact that our history as a species suggests that this might be what is needed, which is so irritating because we do have capacity for rational thought.

KAY: After working on 2071 I was left thinking – well what on earth am I meant to do? I remember reading an earlier draft of the rehearsal script, and saw that what could be described as the need for a revolution was diligently crossed out…

CHRIS: I’m currently writing the Pelican Introduction to Climate Disruption and in it I’ve been right up front:

We need to transform how the world is powered, financed and run.

I talk very critically of free-market fundamentalists since, as pointed out by Lord Stern, climate change is the greatest market failure. I am liberated with the book in that I can say things that we decided not to say in 2071. Because we felt in an hour and a quarter, rightly or wrongly, we needed to keep the messaging really simple. We wanted to attract, engage and inform, and let the audience make up their own minds. We wanted to let the climate science tell the story of climate change. And maybe as a result our audience would then be inclined to read a newspaper article on climate change when they would have previously turned the page – they would become permanently engaged.

KAY: Well you certainly speak for me! Working on 2071 turned my life around. The question we’re trying to ask now with Cosmic Fear is — ‘What can I actually do?’

CHRIS: Well in 2071 we very lightly say what is already happening…

‘Many individuals have taken measures to reduce their own climate-related impacts by making changes in their personal, professional and public lives: installing solar panels; increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, vehicles and appliances; using public transport and avoiding unnecessary travel; changing diet and choosing to forgo activities that generate emissions.

They have encouraged changes to be made in their workplaces and written to their MPs.

They have sought to educate themselves about the issue and to talk about it with their friends, families and communities.’

KAY: And it’s a political as well as a personal thing…

(Extract 3:)

CHRIS: Everybody can patrol their own conscience about their own lives. But in the end you realise that saying ‘every little helps’ isn’t very convincing because despite the fact that you bicycled here I’m afraid the planet isn’t really going to notice that.

[On the hottest day of the year, Chris has noticed my sweaty cyclist’s back…]

But you have an identity, a self-image and a set of values; and to be a human being who feels of value and worth you have to remain true to those values. So you should feel good about the fact that you bicycle. It’s a good thing to do, and other people would applaud it, but in many respects it’s about how you feel about yourself that’s important. It’s not good, for example, to continually feel guilty about yourself… When there’s a dissonance between the way you lead your life and the way you feel you should lead your life, that’s not good for you as a person. But in the end the planet is indifferent.

At your workplace, wherever you are in the food chain, you can make a difference, and I can give you a whole set of amazing stories of small, medium and large companies that have really gone to town on this [Which Chris then does]. What they find is that not only does it reduce costs due to the efficiency savings, but staff morale and productivity goes through the roof and staff turnover goes to zero. And the finance director suddenly becomes the champion and goes out and tells other finance directors you must do this – its transformed our company!

KAY: There’s a line in our play – ‘The changing climate is the outer expression of the inner transformation which has only just begun’… If we can transform ourselves in this personal way, then this will hopefully have an impact on the climate at large. Change starts from within yourself…

CHRIS: Exactly. I think that’s a really really important idea.

So many people feel isolated in the modern world, and what you find are movements growing like the transition towns. When you say to people ‘how does it feel to be saving the planet?’ – what they will mostly talk about is the feeling of community

– ‘oh yeah yeah we’re saving the planet but the main thing is that me and my neighbours really get on now’.

KAY: Well we’ve really taken this idea of community to heart. It means a lot to us as a company, and we want to reach out to others too whilst performing the show in Edinburgh, and either leave a legacy or build a certain momentum towards something.

(Extract 4:)

CHRIS: It’s important to understand, when you sit back and watch the denialist blogosphere, that many of them feel the same way; they feel they’re the valiant defenders of what they have determined is ‘truth’, and they see what they’re doing as magnificent.

KAY – Do you feel that that community is shrinking though? Because my feeling is that the status quo now, especially since Paris, is that people understand climate change to be happening, the science is there.

CHRIS: Well there has been a rise in climate acceptance in the USA, but it seems to be much more to do with personal experiences of drought and weather extremes than with anything that happened at Paris. Although Paris might cement things… I think what’s happening is that the hardcore skeptics are becoming more and more entrenched, and they have to, as the evidence becomes more and more overwhelming. I think people who were previously mildly indifferent are being drawn into the camp where they accept that it’s real, but they’re still “climate ignorers”; they’re not actively engaged because they don’t know quite what to do about it.

KAY: And that’s a huge proportion of people.

CHRIS: Well yes its huge.

KAY: And that’s the group we want to be engaging with.

CHRIS: You know there’s an irony: climate scientists ourselves are probably some of the people who are most able and most practiced at disavowing the issue because if we confronted it we could fall to bits, because we really know what is at stake. We tend to intellectualise the problem – to deal with the planet as ‘an abstract object of study’ – the theoretical object in the computer model or satellite image.

KAY: Well yes, it’s almost unimaginable to know what the world will look like. Even if we were to get to net zero emissions the world is still going to change, and what does that mean?

(Extract 5:)

CHRIS: Climate scientists try and provide the best estimate by building models that project into the future. A recent report on climate risk asked what is the worst that could happen, even with a probability as low as fractions of a percent? Answering that question can have a big influence on the strategy you adopt. But the science community tends to “err on the side of least drama”; we try hard not to be seen as alarmist, even if presenting alarming facts. The IPCC reports mention what a 1.5, 2 and 4C world would look like, and there’s one mention of a 5C world. But about higher temperatures, still within the range of possibilities, they are completely silent…

Even if we knew the science perfectly we don’t know what human beings will actually do, therefore there will always be some uncertainty. So the thing to do is to work backwards to see how long we can hang on to the present system, and then adopt an adaptive management approach, that takes into account how the future actually unfolds. So for example, the Environment Agency has a plan [TE2100] to protect London from sea level rise and river flooding concludes that

we have 15 years before key decisions have to be made –

KAY: 15?! That’s nothing.

CHRIS – Oh, sorry, we all felt that was rather good!

KAY – Really? 15 years to carry on business and life as usual?

CHRIS –Yes, for protecting London. What we’ve got is probably good enough to protect the London flood plain, upon which there is £200 billion worth of real estate, 35 tube stations, 8 power stations, more than 1000 electricity substations, 16 hospitals, a host of heritage sites, and a one and a quarter million residents. That is ok probably for the next 15 years, or a little bit longer. But we have to make a decision in 15 years or so, and then it will take 5-10 years to do something. If sea level rise accelerates we might even have to intervene early. What they have thought through is 3 schemes: light medium and heavy, which have estimated costs already identified…

… So you can believe that provided somebody spends something like £10-20 billion, London will be protected against sea level rise and river flooding up until 2100. But then you can ask: What is the largest rise of sea level beyond which you would give up on protecting the London flood plain?’ The answer is somewhere between 3-5 metres; beyond that the costs and civil engineering become so significant that you’d do better to give up. So you then say: How long do you think that could be? Well 10 years ago we would have all said it’s probably 1000 years from now, so it’s not insignificant, but its not in our remit to deal with. Now we’re worrying it could be 150-200 years or less if things go really badly wrong on the ice sheets, at which point you say well perhaps we shouldn’t be spending the £20 billion then if there’s a reasonable probability that we’re going to have give up the flood plain so soon. Maybe we shouldn’t be wasting our time, maybe we should be confronting it now and start redesigning, rebuilding London on the Chilterns.

… That is a serious question although not a comfortable one.

(Extract 6.)

KAY – Well this is alarming, and you’re dealing with a reality that is soon going to transpire…

CHRIS: – Well you’ll have heard the analogy of putting a frog in a pan of water that’s slowly heated up and it adapts and doesn’t notice – and supposedly ends up boiled. But if you dropped the frog in when it’s hot then it would jump out. Imagine instead the frog sitting in the pan and the water is gently warming up and it turns to its science advisor and asks: What is my situation? And the science advisor says ‘Well give me a £100 million and a super computer and I’ll come back and tell you’. And he does that, and a few minutes later he comes back and says ‘Well, in 20 minutes time you’re going to be a few degrees warmer’. And the frog says it doesn’t sound too bad, I’ll stay where I am. If he turns to his strategic advisor and asks the same question the response will be ‘Well if you sit there long enough you’re going to die, so if I were you I’d get out now’. And that’s the whole point of the London example and indeed a myriad of other examples. Climate change is undermining the validity and legitimacy of many assumptions that are completely inbuilt into the way we are currently functioning, and people are slowly waking up to this. But things are on the move. Mark Carney saying ‘This is the biggest financial threat’ got a lot of people thinking about it and taking action like they never did before.

It’s like a novel, a detective thriller, that nobody’s written the end of yet. Are we going to make it, scrape through or will we continue to sleepwalk until its too late?

KAY: But there’s two narratives you’re talking about here: there’s adaptation and then there’s mitigation, and how much is being mitigated? Because as an individual that’s where I go ‘Well that’s where I could step in’.

CHRIS: Well that’s right, but now we’re seeing that the adaptation is really serious. We only have limited resources of intellect, effort, money and time. And now we’re having to split between two things when if we had acted prudently decades ago we could have focused on the one. What’s interesting is that many of the companies that have gone into adaptation planning have got an interesting story to tell. Many have global supply chains, they’re feeling climate insults already, but having pushed their thinking ahead into adaptation planning, they get to the point of saying the same thing: ‘Wow, we don’t want to go there, this is going to be devastating for our business.’ The adaptation exercises bring them back to mitigation: ‘What can we do to prevent this from happening?’ It’s a nice story.

KAY: But in what ways are they mitigating? Is it as simple as not relying on fossil fuels?

CHRIS: It’s a mixture of enlightened self-interest and a belief that they can make the world a better place.

[Chris then gives the example of Coca Cola who have reduced the amount of water they need to produce a drop of coca cola, as well as reducing carbon emissions from their bottling plants and transportation. These examples of using less energy save them money, but I can’t help but think we need to get onto the subject of rolling out green technologies ASAP if we’re to get off the fossil fuels any time soon!]

(Extract 7:)

KAY: It’s amazing to see people in the business world engaging with climate change with that kind of zeal.


People like to feel like they’re making a difference, it makes people feel good.

KAY: That’s absolutely what we’re trying to cultivate with Cosmic Fear. It’s about climate anxieties, the anxieties that arise when you talk or think about this subject. So as a secondary – and just as important, if not more important – part to our project is ‘Cosmic Outreach’ – which is a space where we’re encouraging people to reflect on and engage with more sustainable modes of living. I’ve personally become vegetarian in the last 8-10 months, and am doing what I can to become vegan – these are the little things that I’m doing, and its about encouraging people to make the kind of adaptations that big business is expected to make. It takes some effort to get over the negative critiquing voices in your one’s own head though…

CHRIS: … and the assumption that your life will somehow be less satisfying; because its actually more satisfying. I agree. The more we can do to get us through that transition the better.

KAY: So, what do you think theatre’s role is with this topic?

CHRIS: I estimated we probably got to about 10,000 people in all the performances we did of 2071, and maybe double that if people talked about it and bought the book. But this is a tiny tiny fraction of humanity. I’m keen that whatever the theatre does, it finds a way of increasing its audience… It’s the greatest story of mankind’s history!…

The more we stir things up the better; that’s one of the things theatre is for.

KAY– Do you think theatre’s objectives of ‘attract, engage and inform’ that you set out to achieve with 2071 are still the same now?

CHRIS- Not necessarily. It may not be the priority to put the effort into now. The Royal Court, post-war, shocked society into thinking differently. It said you guys are sleep-walking and there are serious issues you have to confront. It’s the same story now, and is there a way theatre can do that still?

KAY: You’re relying on a seed being planted…

CHRIS: Yes, but then you have to offer the dialogue that follows. You need to have a guided dialectic. It’s a good question; you’re closer to it than I am.

KAY: To engage people interactively seems to be useful… So people can imagine the choices they can make…

CHRIS: All the work that we’ve been doing with psychoanalysts and neuroscientists says that if you frighten people you will get their attention but then there will be a big backlash because they will resent having been frightened if the threat doesn’t immediately materialise. And the problem with climate change is what’s been called ‘slow violence’. We react incredibly strongly to immediate threats but throughout our evolutionary history the best strategy for slow threats is to wait and see what happens … deal with it when it finally crystalizes and you can understand what it is. The problem with climate change is that by the time it happens it’s too late. There’s another 30-50 years of climate change in the pipeline. Even if we turned off carbon dioxide tomorrow we wouldn’t actually begin to see the climate systems’ trajectory change until about 2060/70. I wont be around, you probably will be. And of course that’s one of the problems with politicians that say ‘why should I risk my political career or become unpopular to do something which is political generations away?’ Well, because as a moral and ethical person, you have a responsibility.

KAY: You’d hope they think like that!

CHRIS: Well yes but it’s a lower priority!

(Extract 8.)

KAY – On this topic, our actress Jessica Sian has this question for you: ‘Are there practical ways we can challenge the evolutionary psychology of only responding to immediate threat?’

CHRIS: There are examples in history where direct action has worked, take the Suffragettes for example, but an awful lot of what I see from those groups both in the UK and elsewhere is sadly misdirected. This is where theatre can come in – it can make people laugh and cry.

You can grab people’s emotions in their solar plexus and that’s what you have to do to get them to walk out of the theatre a changed person.

KAY: It’s interesting what you’re saying: the fine line between direct, almost sledge-hammering action and the more subtle approach…

CHRIS: You can be powerful and you can be subtle and achieve amazing things.

KAY: Sam Ducane, another of our actors asks: ‘How can we keep climate change at the forefront of the public’s mind?’

CHRIS: It’s about opening up the dialogue. Most people would prefer not to talk about it, because A, I don’t know much about it, B, it upsets me and C, because I’ve been told by the Daily Mail and Daily Express that its not an issue anyway – so go away. So making it a permitted subject is vital.

KAY: Yes, so it doesn’t continue to be a taboo or ‘fatigued’ subject…
Sam: ‘Are there clear goals we should be aiming to achieve?’

CHRIS: Pursue the ambitious goals that were set out in COP21. But the thing to do now is to hold the whole political class to its policies and commitments. The amount of effort it will need in the UK and Europe will be much bigger now since Brexit.

KAY: Sam: ‘Is there more the individual can do or is the problem ultimately so big it needs systemic change within major co-operations / governments?’

CHRIS: Well it needs all the above. We didn’t talk about political, and that’s the one I press home all the time. Write to your MP; keep up the pressure. I’ve been told by MPs its extremely rare if ever that they get anything in their postbag about climate change. This is politics. If we want people in Westminster to take it seriously, then the public have to keep on and on about it to them. A barrage of emails, demonstrations outside their offices… then we’d see a shift in their attention.

KAY: Question from Jack Gordon: ‘Where are we in terms of temperature now?’

CHRIS: 12 of the last 14 years have been the hottest on record; 2015 the hottest; and 2016 looks like it will be hotter than 2015. In the Arctic, which is very sensitive to temperature rise and where the temperature increase goes at twice the rate of the average of the planet, pretty much throughout last winter temperatures were consistently 10 Degrees C above normal, and 3 days before Christmas at the North Pole temperatures were somewhere between 20 – 30C warmer than normal and the ice was beginning to melt. We’ve not seen anything like this. Since then, surface melting on the Greenland ice sheets started early this year; and there have been three big bursts of melting since. In the Antarctic things are different and a bit more complicated. But in the Arctic it’s affecting the arctic peoples. They have ‘traditional knowledge’ that allows them to survive in their extreme conditions, but it’s now no longer relevant. The system has moved outside the bounds of their long experience and faster than anything they’ve ever known. They have never had freezing rain in the early winter before and this is leaving impervious layers of ice under the snow so the reindeer can no longer smell where the lichen and the fodder are, so they’re all starving. They were having problems with the modern world anyway and this is like a death threat to them.


It was a fascinating, illuminating and important conversation that Chris and I had, and I’m incredibly grateful for his time and reflections. In the hottest week of summer in London climate action has certainly not gone to bed!


Please see what we’re doing to continue the climate conversation in theatre here and for bookings of our four-week run at the Edinburgh Fringe, go here.


The book of the play 2071 – The World We’’ll Leave Our Grandchildren by Chris Rapley and Duncan Macmillan is on sale published by John Murray.

Available for £8.99 from all good booksellers and from Amazon

Britain: A Changing Theatrical Landscape…

There is a growing interest in new plays from Scandinavia; theatre is catching up with TV and film. The Nordic Embassies recently hosted an event at the Free Word Centre, presenting an afternoon of performance and discussion around recent developments in contemporary drama from their countries, and Company of Angels are preparing for their Theatre Café Denmark in October. I recently caught up with CoA Artistic Director, Teresa Ariosto, to discuss our shared interest in presenting new European plays in the UK and to find out more about their model of working. What has become clear is Empty Deck’s position within this landscape.

I can quite firmly place myself within a younger generation of British theatre-makers who are influenced by new international theatre. Teresa, herself from Italy, has seen that interest grow over the past decade, as well as new British writing change since she moved here in 1998. When we talk, the same notions repeat themselves: the diversity of approach to themes and forms found in new European writing; expanding the British theatrical landscape; and theatre that is simply more stimulating.

In the translation or transposition of one country’s play into another, questions around “foreignesss” and assumptions about the reception of audiences seem to recur. Company of Angels have run ‘Theatre Cafes’ since 2003: events where translations of the best new European plays are selected between several host countries, and brought to life in each, in intimate café-style performances. In their first European project in 2007 something interesting occurred though. Between France, Holland and Estonia, 10 plays were chosen with the intention for each country to stage them all. Yet, according to Teresa, Holland and France’s selection of plays were predominantly about asylum seeking and immigration, which as a subject matter was deemed to be of no interest to Estonia. In the end, the four countries decided to split the plays up between them according to their own interests and what they believed would resonate with their audiences.

Theatre Cafe Oslo, 2014-2015

Theatre Cafe Oslo, 2014-2015

I have a strong belief in the universality of human experience, and furthermore I am convinced that sharing stories from other places can only be an empowering thing. At the Nordic Drama Now event, heated and passionate conversations erupted around Britain’s particular difficulty in attracting audiences to new international theatre. I have no idea if it’s the same situation in Estonia, but they’re decision to not stage a play because a political issue of another country could not be shared as a global humanitarian concern in their own, strikes me as a shame, if not narrow-minded. Are we narrow-minded here too? And what is causing this perceived lack of interest? If typical theatregoers, as it is often generally assumed, have such distrust of theatre that is ‘other’ in subject matter or in form, then it seems to me that the task lies with the producers, programmers and marketing departments to reframe the audiences’ encounter with contemporary international work.

‘The more local the theme of a play the more global it becomes’

Johan Storgatd, ACE Production, Finland (Nordic Drama Now)


In 2008, Company of Angel’s Café Sweden worked to a slightly different model than before. Under the commission of the Swedish Embassy, a committee of readers made up of British programmers, literary managers and artistic directors looked at a whole host of Swedish plays to investigate why they weren’t being produced and staged here. The committee’s task was to find 4 plays that they thought would capture the British attention. Teresa recounts their many discussions about how certain plays or topics were thought to not be ‘right’ for the British sensitivity: they would alienate, the form would be too ‘out there’, and audiences wouldn’t be interested. Again: are these assertions founded?

When thinking about introducing new international plays to the UK I find myself asking: should the transmission be a process of assimilation, where the play is re-worked or even adapted to let it speak to our more “British” sensitivities, or, should the work be revered and honoured in its “foreignness”, as an exemplar product imported from another country? – ‘Product’ being the questionable thing. A playtext in and of itself is never the finished product. Only through its encounter with actors, a director, designer, and other creatives does the text come alive. And what Company of Angels so interestingly facilitates is a space where a play can be brought to life across more than one country at the same time, where in every case that country’s own social, cultural, and political make-up, as well as the personal experience of the actors, will enter the fabric of performance and generate new meaning. This is inevitable. And it is this cultural translation that I find fascinating. If only Estonia had had the bravery to ask itself the imaginary question posed by the rejected French and Dutch plays of Theatre Café 2007: ‘What if people from other countries were trying to enter and make a home in your country?’

Nordic Drama Now, Free Word Centre, Sept 2015

Nordic Drama Now, Free Word Centre, Sept 2015

I feel more and more that Empty Deck’s role is to confront the assertions that new international writing doesn’t have a wide audience and home here, and to embrace and be an advocate for challenging narratives and formal experimentation.

In my reading of new Scandinavian theatre what was challenging was deciding exactly what my criteria for selection was. Andrea Ferran, Artistic Director of the recent Volta Festival at the Arcola Theatre, claimed that her programming choices of new international plays came down to those that showed formal experimentation. Teresa, at Company of Angels, looks for plays that are for or about young people and that come from Europe. In the end, the size of casts (aka finances) and the thematic inclinations of our partner venues provided me with my own parameters whilst reading through the variety of contemporary Scandinavian theatre sent to me. But I have also gone with my gut. I hope that Season Scandinavia will introduce audiences to a different and remarkable canon of work that exists from a part of Europe that, although may have become more familiar through popular TV series, still remains quite distant to us. I hope that as British theatre-makers we do the work justice when presenting it to the UK for first time, as well as make it our own, in discovering what the material expresses for us today.


Thanks to Teresa Ariosto at Company of Angels for her time in conversation; all those involved at Nordic Drama Now at the Free Word Centre; the conversations had at and around the recent play readings presented by Cross Channel Theatre and the productions at VOLTA Festival, Arcola; and the discussions that took place in the ETRN “Theatre Directions 2020” thinktank symposium led by Kent University. All provided rich provocations in the past few weeks on this topic!

Empty Deck presents a scratch performance of Christian Lollike’s Cosmic Fear Or The Day Brad Pitt Got Paranoia on 30th October, The Other Room, Cardiff.
For more information and to help us work with the most exciting Welsh creatives check out our Kickstarter campaign here WE HAVE ONLY A MATTER OF DAYS LEFT!

Kay Michael chats to Niger Asije – editor of the New Current

Kay Michael

Niger Asije, Editor of the New Current caught up with Then Silence Director, Kay Michael ahead of our performance at INCOMING Festival on June 7th. You can read the full interview at www.thenewcurrent.co.uk

Hi Kay how’s it going, you all set for your the festival?
I think so! It’s the Saturday night before the big day; I’m sitting in my living room, with a cup of ginger tea, listening to Olafur Arnolds. Keeping it chilled.

Have you been able to get any rest between Then Silence and A Local Boy?
Not a huge amount unfortunately, no! A few weeks after A Local Boy ended I started working on Clarion at the Arcola Theatre, Mark Jagasia’s hilarious and dark debut play about the state of the British press. It’s good to have worked on a string of shows since January, but I’m definitely looking forward to a long summer!

The reaction to A Local Boy was fantastic, did you expect to get the type of reaction you got?
We were thrilled to get the reaction we did. I’ve never had a standing ovation on a first preview! We were very lucky to be opening the show in a college in Dartford, and so our first audience was made up of 16 – 18 year olds who absolutely the show. It spoke to them; it was in their language, talking candidly about things that related to them. I always knew Dan Murphy’s writing was very funny, but it was extremely heartfelt too, and so not only did it make them laugh, but it moved people too, especially the relationship between the mother and son.

What does it mean for you to bring Then Silence to Incoming Festival?
It means a lot. Then Silence is a risky choice. It’s a translation of a 2009 play from a Norwegian writer, who although is award-winning and really very well known in his home country, just hasn’t been heard of here. The production itself – as it is now – is unlike anything I think I’ve seen. It’s challenging. Both those things excite me as a theatre-maker, and I’m glad Incoming Festival are invested in at as much as we are. Empty Deck, my theatre company, are launching at the festival with this show, and we have big plans ahead, so we’re very excited to have the audience and support to begin our journey.

Any nerves ahead of the run?
Yes! I really have no idea how the audience will respond. I’ve been interrogating this play for two years now with my designer and a whole host of actors, and we feel we’ve finally come to something that really stretches the play and makes it sing. We’ve only had two weeks to put together what we’re showing on Sunday, and this is all a development process for a full production run in the autumn. I’m wanting feedback to see where we can take things forwards. It’s a big unknown at the moment, so yes: nervous but very excited.

Tell me a little bit about Then Silence what can we expect?
It’s a play that defies the ordinary logic of character or setting. 3 actor-characters explore 10 scenarios, trying to make sense of various situations human beings find themselves within, and as they do so they discover what it might mean to be ‘nothing’. Expect to be intrigued, confused, to laugh hysterically, to be distressed, stunned, and left feeling like you’ve lived through a hundred years within 70 minutes. (That’s something my designer said today after watching a run…)

What was it about Arne Lygre text that interested you so much?
His writing is just so different to anything I’d read before. He stretches time, splinters ideas of character and identity, and talks about epic themes such as disasters, bereavement, and existential crises. I’ve likened him to Jon Fosse, Martin Crimp, Pinter and Beckett in the past. There’s something very elusive yet extremely powerful about his writing; it touches a nerve.

What has been the biggest challenges you’ve faced with the show?
The play is riddled with challenges! The biggest has probably been in getting away from the need to answer the typical ‘Stanislavskian’ questions such as ‘who am I?’; ‘where am I?’, ‘what do I want?’, when analysing the characters and their situation. Pinning the play down in a concrete reality only imposes something onto the play which I just don’t think is there. The actors working with me on this have very much worked from themselves, which I am incredibly grateful for. It’s been very brave of them.

Have you always had a passion for theatre?
Yes. I can’t remember the first show I saw though. (I remember the first gig I went too funnily enough). I acted a lot when I was younger, and continued even after university for a while, but I knew at that point I just wanted to direct.

What was your directorial debut like, a pleasant or stressful experience?
The year after graduating from uni I decided that I really needed to direct a full length play having done only short new writing, to see if I could really do it and if I wanted to seriously pursue it professionally. I was working off intuition for the most part in the rehearsal room, and was sure I didn’t know what I was doing, but I loved it. I staged Philip Ridley’s play Mercury Fur in a found derelict flat in Leamington Spa, which was crazy really. We had to remove tonnes of used syringes from the overgrown garden and even a dead cat from one of the rooms before installing our own lighting rig and making it safe for an audience! I don’t remember it being stressful, just a lot of fun and adventure.

Looking back would you do anything differently?
Specifically about a show, or generally with where I’ve got to as a director? I suppose to answer both: No. I’ve made mistakes and ‘failed’ at times, definitely, but I’ve learnt the most from those experiences.

What 5 words best describe Then Silence?
Intense roller-coaster ride of experiences.

Do you have a favourite theatre quote?
Ahh I have so many quotes scrawled in note books, but I can’t remember any off the top of my head! That’s bad isn’t it. ‘Everything must come from the heart. Must be lived.’ I just looked that up – it’s Pina Bausch.

What has been the best advice you’ve been given?
To let go.

To up and coming directors what would be the best advice you would offer them?
To keep trying to make the work you want to make.

And finally, what do you hope people will take away from Then Silence?
The drive to keep on living as best as we can and to love with a full heart.

This interview was commissioned by The New Current. All content Ⓒ The New Current 2015.